Course Content
Basics of Indian Polity
Basics of Indian Polity
Making of the Constitution
Salient Features of Indian Constitution
Types of Constitution
Sources of Constitution
Basic Structure of Constitution
Union & Its Territories
Fundamental Rights
Directive Principles of State Policy
Fundamental Duties
Comparison of Indian Constitution
Parliamentary vs Presidential System
Indian Federation
Centre State Relations
Inter State Relations
Emergency Provisions
(GS-II) Indian Polity & Constitution
About Lesson
SOURCES of Constitution
GoI Act, 1935Federal Scheme, Governor, Public Service Commission, Emergency Provisions, Administrative details, Structural part
BritishParliamentary Govt, Rule of Law, Legislative procedure, Single Citizenship, Cabinet System, Prerogative writs, Parliamentary privileges, Bicameralism, First Past the Post, Speaker
USFR, Judiciary independence & review, President impeachment, Removal of SC, HC judges, Vice President post
CanadaFederation with strong Centre, Residuary powers with Centre, Appointment of State Governors by Centre, SC advisory jurisdiction
IrishDPSP, Nomination of members to RS, Election of President
AustraliaConcurrent list, Freedom of trade, commerce & inter-course, Parliament joint sitting
GermanySuspension of FR during Emergency
USSRFundamental Duties, Justice – social, economic, political in Preamble
FrenchRepublic, Ideals of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity in Preamble
South AfricaProcedure for Amendment, Election of members to RS
JapanProcedure established by Law
  1. T – Territory – Names of states, UTs, their territorial jurisdiction.
  2. E – Emoluments/Salary/Privileges of President, Governors, Speaker Deputy Speaker of LS & State, Chairman Deputy Chairman of RS & Legislative Council, Judges of SC HC, CAG.
  3. A – Affirmation/Oath – 
  4. R – Rajya Sabha – Allocation of seats in Rajya Sabha
  5. S – Scheduled Tribes – Administration & control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes
  6. O – Other Tribes – Administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram
  7. F – Federal – Division of Powers between Union & State in terms of list
  8. O – Official Language recognised by Constitution
  9. L – Land Reforms – Acts & Regulations of State legislatures dealing with land reforms & abolition of Zamindari System and of Parliament dealing with other matters. Added by 1st Amendment to protect laws included in it from judicial scrutiny on FR violation. In 2007, SC ruled laws included in this after April 24, 1973 open to judicial review.
  10. D – Defection – Anti Defection Law
  11. P – Panchayati Raj
  12. M – Municipalities– Its power, authority
Features of Constitution
  1. Lengthiest Written Constitution- Presently it consists of 465 Articles, 25 Parts, 12 Schedules. Factors of large size- Vastness of country, diversity. Influence of GoI Act, 1935. Single Constitution for Centre & States. Dominance of lawyers. Structural part derived from
  2. Secular State– No official religion of Indian State. Term ‘secular‘ added to Preamble by 42 AA. Western concept of Secularism- complete separation between religion and State. Indian Constitution embodies positive concept of secularism i.e. giving equal respect to all religions or protecting all religions equally.
  1. Borrowed Constitution
  2. Sir Ivor Jennings said Constitution derives directly from GoI Act, 1935.
  3. Does not contain philosophy and ideals of Mahatma Gandhi.